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Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation

Year 2022, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 92 - 104, 29.12.2022

Abstract

Cognitive views on movement execution during the early development of a skill recognize that this skill is highly dependent on the formation, retrieval, and application of consciously accessible declarative information in working memory. During this early declarative phase of skill acquisition, the attention demands of motion preparation and control are high, but as the learner becomes more proficient, the declarative information supporting motion practice gradually evolves into a rich procedural representation. It doesn't need to be done consciously and requires much less attention. Much of the way people respond to and adapt to the environment happens indirectly without this conscious awareness. Nevertheless, motor skills in sport and any number of learned skills necessary for daily life are often clearly acquired and this can result in enormous contributions from consciousness during their execution. Although motor learning is important in current approaches, it is one of the neglected subjects in rehabilitation programs, especially in the field of sports. The aim of this study is to examine the importance of motor learning, cortical plasticity and neuromuscular training in sports rehabilitation.

References

  • Andrews JR, Harrelson GL, (2011). Wilk KE. Physicalrehabilitation of the injured athlete. 4th ed.Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KF. (2014). Fifty-fve per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and metaanalysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. Br J Sports Med. 48(21), 1543–1552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093398
  • Bate P, Motor Control. (2008). Pocketbook of Neurological Physiotherapy. p31 - 40.
  • Cano-De-La-Cuerda et al. (2015). Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neurorehabilitation. Neurología (English Edition), 30(1), 32-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2011.12.012
  • Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Ávila, L. T. G. (2013). An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(7), 627-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01569.x
  • Classen, J., Liepert, J., Wise, S.P., Hallett, M., Cohen, L.G. (1998) Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice. J Neurophysiol, 79(2),1117-1123. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.1998.79.2.1117
  • Dalvandm H, Dehghan L. (2008). [Standardized of Peabody Developmental Motor Scale(PDMS) in First Grade elementary School Children in Tehran]. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2008; 27: 137 -44
  • Dingenen B, Gokeler A. (2017). Optimization of the return-to-sport paradigm after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a critical step back to move forward. Sports Med, 47:1487–500. DOI 10.1007/s40279-017-0674-6
  • Di Tore, P. A., & Raiola, G. (2012). Exergames in motor skill learning. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(3), 358. DOI:10.7752/jpes.2012.03053
  • Dr, Richard Keegan. (2016). Lecture 2 Conceptualising Motor Learning. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOthWZhdXVE Accessed 01/03/16
  • Dr, Richard Keegan. (2016). Lecture 3 Models of Motor Learning Stages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8xeLsfigGs. Accessed 01/03/16
  • Durham K, Van Vliet PM, Badger F, Sackley C. (2009). Use of information feedback and attentional focus of feedback in treating the person with a hemiplegic arm. Physiother Res Int, 14(2):77–90. https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.431
  • Effenberg, A. O., Fehse, U., Schmitz, G., Krueger, B., & Mechling, H. (2016). Movement sonification: effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments. Frontiers in neuroscience, 10, 219. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00219
  • Gokeler A et al. (2015). The efects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction. Phys Ther Sport. 16(2):114–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.06.002
  • Gokeler A et al. (2013). Feedback techniques to target functional defcits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: implications for motor control and reduction of second injury risk. Sports Med, 43(11):1065–74.
  • Gokeler, A., Neuhaus, D., Benjaminse, A., Grooms, D. R., & Baumeister, J. (2019). Principles of motor learning to support neuroplasticity after ACL injury: implications for optimizing performance and reducing risk of second ACL injury. Sports Medicine, 49(6), 853-865.
  • Greenwood R, Barnes MP, McMillan TM, Ward CD. (2003). Handbook of neurological rehabilitation. London: Psychology Press.
  • Grooms, D., Appelbaum, G., & Onate, J. (2015). Neuroplasticity following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a framework for visual-motor training approaches in rehabilitation. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 45(5), 381-393. https://www.jospt.org/doi/10.2519/jospt.2015.5549
  • Hassan MM. (2001). Validity and reliability for the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as applied in the United Arab Emirates culture. Percept Mot Skills, 92(1):157 -66. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2001.92.1.157
  • Hänsel F.(2002). Instruktionspsychologie motorischen Lernens. Frankfurt am Main.
  • Johansson, B.B. (2003) Neurorehabilitation and brain plasticity. J Rehabil Med, 35 (1), 1. DOI: 10.1080/16501970306105
  • KAYA, D. Ö. (2017). Rehabilitasyon: Sporcularda Nöromüsküler Eğitim. Turkiye Klinikleri Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation-Special Topics, 3(2), 69-79.
  • Kleim, J.A., Jones, T.A. (2008) Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 51 (1), 225-239. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388.
  • Lephart S, Swanik CB, Balckburn T. (2015). Reestab-lishing Neuromuscular Control. In: PrenticeWE, Kaminski TW, eds. Rehabilitaton Tech-niques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training. Chapter 6. 6th ed. New York.
  • Lohse KR, Sherwood DE, Healy AF. (2010). How changing the focus of attention afects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Hum Mov Sci, ;29(4):542–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.001
  • MERAY, J. (2018). Dysfunction of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis: A Complicating Condition for Rehabilitation in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Bilimleri Dergisi. DOI: 10.31609/jpmrs.2016-53825
  • Molina-Rueda F, Perez-Cruz S. (2010). Reflections on physiotherapy: motor learning, how to learn our patients. Issues of physiotherapy, 39:211—8.
  • Newell KM. (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Annu Rev Psychol, 42:213–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.001241
  • Nyland J et al. (2016). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, rehabilitation, and return to play: 2015 update. Open Access J Sports Med, 7:21–32. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S72332
  • Risberg MA, Holm I. (2009). The long-term efect of 2 postoperative rehabilitation programs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 years of follow-up. Am J Sports Med, 37(10):1958–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546509335196
  • Risedal, A et al. (2002) Environmental influences on functional outcome after a cortical infarct in the rat. Brain Res Bull, 58 (3), 315-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-9230(02)00796-7
  • Sawers, A., Hahn, M. E., Kelly, V. E., Czerniecki, J. M., & Kartin, D. (2012). Beyond componentry: How principles of motor learning can enhance locomotor rehabilitation of individuals with lower limb loss--A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(10). http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2011.12.0235
  • Schmidt RAWC. (2005). Motor learning and performance. Champaing: Human Kinetics.
  • Sugimoto D et al. (2015). Biome-chanical and neuromuscular characteristics ofmale athletes: implications for the develop-ment of anterior cruciate ligament injury pre-vention programs. Sports Med, 45(6):809-22.
  • Stuart, D. G et al. (2002). Classics in Movement Science.
  • Thomas, J. R., & French, K. E. (1985). Gender differences across age in motor performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 98(2), 260.

Spor Rehabilitasyonunda Motor Öğrenme

Year 2022, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 92 - 104, 29.12.2022

Abstract

Bir becerinin erken gelişimi sırasında hareket yürütmeye ilişkin bilişsel görüşler, bu becerinin işleyen bellekte bilinçli olarak erişilebilir bildirimsel bilginin oluşumuna, geri alınmasına ve uygulanmasına büyük ölçüde bağlı olduğunu kabul eder. Beceri edinmenin bu erken bildirimsel aşaması sırasında hareket hazırlama ve kontrolün dikkat talepleri yüksektir, ancak öğrenen daha yetkin hale geldikçe, hareket uygulamasını destekleyen bildirimsel bilgi, aşamalı olarak zengin bir prosedürel temsile dönüşür. Bilinçli olarak yapılmasına gerek kalmaz ve çok daha az dikkat gerektirir. İnsanların çevreye tepki verme ve çevreye uyum sağlama şekillerinin çoğu, bu bilinçli farkındalık olmaksızın dolaylı olarak gerçekleşmektedir. Yine de, sporda motor beceriler ve günlük yaşam için gerekli olan herhangi bir sayıdaki öğrenilmiş beceriler, genellikle açık bir şekilde edinilir ve bu durum, bunların icrası sırasında bilinçten çok büyük katkılarla sonuçlanabilir. Mevcut yaklaşımlarda motor öğrenme önemli olsa da rehabilitasyon programlarında özellikle spor alanında göz ardı edilen konulardan biridir. Bu çalışmanın amacı spor rehabilitasyonunda motor öğrenme, kortikal plastisite ve nöromüsküler eğitimin önemini incelemektir.

References

  • Andrews JR, Harrelson GL, (2011). Wilk KE. Physicalrehabilitation of the injured athlete. 4th ed.Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KF. (2014). Fifty-fve per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and metaanalysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. Br J Sports Med. 48(21), 1543–1552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093398
  • Bate P, Motor Control. (2008). Pocketbook of Neurological Physiotherapy. p31 - 40.
  • Cano-De-La-Cuerda et al. (2015). Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neurorehabilitation. Neurología (English Edition), 30(1), 32-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2011.12.012
  • Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Ávila, L. T. G. (2013). An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(7), 627-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01569.x
  • Classen, J., Liepert, J., Wise, S.P., Hallett, M., Cohen, L.G. (1998) Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice. J Neurophysiol, 79(2),1117-1123. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.1998.79.2.1117
  • Dalvandm H, Dehghan L. (2008). [Standardized of Peabody Developmental Motor Scale(PDMS) in First Grade elementary School Children in Tehran]. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci. 2008; 27: 137 -44
  • Dingenen B, Gokeler A. (2017). Optimization of the return-to-sport paradigm after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a critical step back to move forward. Sports Med, 47:1487–500. DOI 10.1007/s40279-017-0674-6
  • Di Tore, P. A., & Raiola, G. (2012). Exergames in motor skill learning. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(3), 358. DOI:10.7752/jpes.2012.03053
  • Dr, Richard Keegan. (2016). Lecture 2 Conceptualising Motor Learning. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOthWZhdXVE Accessed 01/03/16
  • Dr, Richard Keegan. (2016). Lecture 3 Models of Motor Learning Stages. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8xeLsfigGs. Accessed 01/03/16
  • Durham K, Van Vliet PM, Badger F, Sackley C. (2009). Use of information feedback and attentional focus of feedback in treating the person with a hemiplegic arm. Physiother Res Int, 14(2):77–90. https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.431
  • Effenberg, A. O., Fehse, U., Schmitz, G., Krueger, B., & Mechling, H. (2016). Movement sonification: effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments. Frontiers in neuroscience, 10, 219. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00219
  • Gokeler A et al. (2015). The efects of attentional focus on jump performance and knee joint kinematics in patients after ACL reconstruction. Phys Ther Sport. 16(2):114–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.06.002
  • Gokeler A et al. (2013). Feedback techniques to target functional defcits following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: implications for motor control and reduction of second injury risk. Sports Med, 43(11):1065–74.
  • Gokeler, A., Neuhaus, D., Benjaminse, A., Grooms, D. R., & Baumeister, J. (2019). Principles of motor learning to support neuroplasticity after ACL injury: implications for optimizing performance and reducing risk of second ACL injury. Sports Medicine, 49(6), 853-865.
  • Greenwood R, Barnes MP, McMillan TM, Ward CD. (2003). Handbook of neurological rehabilitation. London: Psychology Press.
  • Grooms, D., Appelbaum, G., & Onate, J. (2015). Neuroplasticity following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a framework for visual-motor training approaches in rehabilitation. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 45(5), 381-393. https://www.jospt.org/doi/10.2519/jospt.2015.5549
  • Hassan MM. (2001). Validity and reliability for the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as applied in the United Arab Emirates culture. Percept Mot Skills, 92(1):157 -66. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2001.92.1.157
  • Hänsel F.(2002). Instruktionspsychologie motorischen Lernens. Frankfurt am Main.
  • Johansson, B.B. (2003) Neurorehabilitation and brain plasticity. J Rehabil Med, 35 (1), 1. DOI: 10.1080/16501970306105
  • KAYA, D. Ö. (2017). Rehabilitasyon: Sporcularda Nöromüsküler Eğitim. Turkiye Klinikleri Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation-Special Topics, 3(2), 69-79.
  • Kleim, J.A., Jones, T.A. (2008) Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 51 (1), 225-239. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388.
  • Lephart S, Swanik CB, Balckburn T. (2015). Reestab-lishing Neuromuscular Control. In: PrenticeWE, Kaminski TW, eds. Rehabilitaton Tech-niques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training. Chapter 6. 6th ed. New York.
  • Lohse KR, Sherwood DE, Healy AF. (2010). How changing the focus of attention afects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Hum Mov Sci, ;29(4):542–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.001
  • MERAY, J. (2018). Dysfunction of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis: A Complicating Condition for Rehabilitation in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Fiziksel Tıp ve Rehabilitasyon Bilimleri Dergisi. DOI: 10.31609/jpmrs.2016-53825
  • Molina-Rueda F, Perez-Cruz S. (2010). Reflections on physiotherapy: motor learning, how to learn our patients. Issues of physiotherapy, 39:211—8.
  • Newell KM. (1991). Motor skill acquisition. Annu Rev Psychol, 42:213–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191.001241
  • Nyland J et al. (2016). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, rehabilitation, and return to play: 2015 update. Open Access J Sports Med, 7:21–32. doi: 10.2147/OAJSM.S72332
  • Risberg MA, Holm I. (2009). The long-term efect of 2 postoperative rehabilitation programs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 years of follow-up. Am J Sports Med, 37(10):1958–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546509335196
  • Risedal, A et al. (2002) Environmental influences on functional outcome after a cortical infarct in the rat. Brain Res Bull, 58 (3), 315-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-9230(02)00796-7
  • Sawers, A., Hahn, M. E., Kelly, V. E., Czerniecki, J. M., & Kartin, D. (2012). Beyond componentry: How principles of motor learning can enhance locomotor rehabilitation of individuals with lower limb loss--A review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49(10). http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2011.12.0235
  • Schmidt RAWC. (2005). Motor learning and performance. Champaing: Human Kinetics.
  • Sugimoto D et al. (2015). Biome-chanical and neuromuscular characteristics ofmale athletes: implications for the develop-ment of anterior cruciate ligament injury pre-vention programs. Sports Med, 45(6):809-22.
  • Stuart, D. G et al. (2002). Classics in Movement Science.
  • Thomas, J. R., & French, K. E. (1985). Gender differences across age in motor performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 98(2), 260.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Review
Authors

Çağdaş IŞIKLAR
FENERBAHÇE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0287-3238
Türkiye

Publication Date December 29, 2022
Submission Date July 6, 2022
Acceptance Date October 3, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022Volume: 3 Issue: 2

Cite

Bibtex @review { asujshr1140907, journal = {Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches}, eissn = {2757-6310}, address = {Aksaray Üniversitesi Rektörlük İdari Birimler Spor ve Sağlık Alanında İhtisaslaşma Koordinatörlüğü Aksaray/Merkez, 68100}, publisher = {Aksaray University}, year = {2022}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {92 - 104}, title = {Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation}, key = {cite}, author = {Işıklar, Çağdaş} }
APA Işıklar, Ç. (2022). Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation . Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches , 3 (2) , 92-104 . Retrieved from http://asujshr.aksaray.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/73325/1140907
MLA Işıklar, Ç. "Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation" . Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches 3 (2022 ): 92-104 <http://asujshr.aksaray.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/73325/1140907>
Chicago Işıklar, Ç. "Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation". Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches 3 (2022 ): 92-104
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation AU - ÇağdaşIşıklar Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 92 EP - 104 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2757-6310 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation %A Çağdaş Işıklar %T Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation %D 2022 %J Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches %P -2757-6310 %V 3 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Işıklar, Çağdaş . "Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation". Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches 3 / 2 (December 2022): 92-104 .
AMA Işıklar Ç. Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation. ASUJSHR. 2022; 3(2): 92-104.
Vancouver Işıklar Ç. Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation. Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches. 2022; 3(2): 92-104.
IEEE Ç. Işıklar , "Motor Learning in Sport Rehabilitation", Aksaray University Journal of Sport and Health Researches, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 92-104, Dec. 2022

An International Peer-Reviewed e-Journal / Period: Biannually / Founded: 2020 / Publisher: Aksaray University

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